The complexities of the oil and gas industry can make keeping up with all the terms and definitions related to drilling difficult. To simplify things, we’ve compiled a glossary of the most important terms related to drilling and to the oil and gas industry.
Oilfield Glossary of Terms
A steel pipe that’s placed in an oil or gas well after drilling is completed to prevent the well hole from caving in. Casing also prevents fluids from moving from one formation (like groundwater) to another and helps in well control.
Drill Rig: The machinery that’s used to drill oil and gas wells. There are two types of drill rigs: rotary and cable tools, with rotary drill rigs being more efficient.
A heavy steel tube that’s placed between the drill pipe and the bit in the drill stem. Drill collars are used to add weight to the bit to make drilling easier.
A removable, steel, serrated piece that fits into the jaws of tongs. Die inserts grip drill pipes, drill collars and casing while the tongs are making up or breaking out pipe.
An internal-combustion engine frequently used for powering drilling rigs. A diesel engine is a high-compression engine that draws air into its cylinders and compresses the air to very high pressures; ignition then occurs as fuel is injected into the compressed, hot air. Combustion takes place in the cylinder above the piston; the combustion then powers the piston.
A long hollow steel bar that’s used to connect the upper end of a drill string. Kelly bushing is a sleeve in the rotary table that allows the Kelly to freely move up and down during drilling. Kelly bushing also plays a part in the measurement of well depth, as well depth is measured from the Kelly bushing, down to the bottom of the well.
A pipe with a small diameter or a tube threaded at both ends. Tubing is lowered into a completed well so that oil and gas can be produced through the string of tubing.
A single section of drill pipe, casing or tubing that’s usually about 30 feet long.
A drilling technique that consists of vertical drilling down to a particular depth, and then involves turning at a right angle to drill horizontally within a specified reservoir.
A steel bar that supports the swivel and connects it to the hook; resembles the handle of a bucket.